Thursday, July 02, 2015

If Everyone Is Working for Free, How Is Anyone Supposed to Earn a Living?

Have you or your company ever hired someone from a website such as Freelancer, oDesk, Fiverr, eLance, or another popular site for outsourcing gigs? Alternatively, have you or your company offered services on one or more of these sites? If so, you are a part of the Global Online Employment trend that has been booming for quite a while now.

I personally have used a few of these sites as a resource to clients seeking a ghostwriter for their books and bios. Yet, I found that the competition was too willing to bid low dollar amounts for their work or they lived in areas where the cost of living was significantly less than mine, thereby being able to bid lower and still earn a significant living. As such, my bids were frequently four and five times higher than most (except on Fiverr, which is a fixed amount). Sometimes I landed the gig anyway, sometimes I didn't.

I also recently posted a photo captured in a chain restaurant and Tweeted it via Instagram. Within moments, I heard from the restaurant, which wanted full rights to my image to use for their social media campaigns. The catch was, they didn't want to open their wallets to pay me for it. My thought was, "I go into their establishment and open my wallet for their product. They come to my establishment and request full rights to my product, but don't want to pay me for it?" As a professional photographer, this aggravated me. So, I began to question, If everyone is giving away their work, how is anyone supposed to earn a living?

To find the answer, I reached out to Freelancer's Nikki Parker, Regional Director, North America & Oceania.

Photo Courtesy of Freelancer
Q: Let's start with some statistics. How many people actively use Freelancer?

Freelancer currently has 10.7 million members. The term "active" varies for each user, as we have people who spend their entire work day bidding on projects or we have employers that need to use at specific times of the year, e.g. tax time, end of financial year, annual reports, etc.

Q: There are many websites like Freelancer that create a marketplace for creative entrepreneurs. How have they impacted the way entrepreneurs earn a living?

Thanks to the internet the way that we connect, collaborate and work has changed quite dramatically and it is opening up a world of new opportunities.

When working online in a global marketplace like there is the opportunity for employers and freelancers to barter and enter into an agreement to work on specific projects that suit both parties. An employer will choose to work with a freelancer after they have weighed up the freelancers skill, past experience, online reputation, length of time required to complete the project and the overall price and a freelancer can decide what projects they work on.

Q: How do creative entrepreneurs compete in such a competitive environment?

On there are freelancers who are charging an hourly rate significantly higher than those they could command in their countries and for freelancers from the developing world they are able to earn their weeks wage in just one hour. Freelancers working on certainly do not give away their work for free, in fact, it is quite the opposite and they are able to sell their services and work with global clients they would not previously had access to. Freelancers working on the site are not only able to make a living for themselves, but they are also able to lift their families out of poverty. A freelancer can choose what work they bid for and work on and if they deem a price range too low for that service they can focus on other projects.

Q: Isn't this highly competitive environment more difficult for those who live where the cost of living is higher? 

We are seeing a lot of savvy entrepreneurs and business owners who have typically sold services, e.g. web design or development, and have now realized that there are others around the world who are offering more competitive rates. Rather than see this as a challenge they are seeing this as a huge opportunity. They are now outsourcing pieces of work to global freelancers and refocusing their efforts elsewhere, e.g. building up a client base, sales or marketing for their business.

Businesses who recognize that the way we do work is changing and who adapt to these changes will be able to take advantage of the world of opportunities and a global workforce that they have at their fingertips.

Q: Is there a place in for entrepreneurs who are accustomed to billing higher dollars for their work?

Yes I definitely see high quality freelancers charging well above the "average" bid price and landing the job! Ultimately if I need to get work done as an employer I have to pick someone who can do the work, irrespective of price. I genuinely believe marketplaces like are opening up incredible opportunities for both freelancers and employers to get great work done, earn a good income and collaborate with clients from around the world.

I admit that Nikki opened my eyes to a different angle. However, I still won't give my photographs away for free to an establishment that will profit from them, and yet where I pay (make that "paid") for their products.

Wednesday, July 01, 2015

Is Your Author Bio Up to Par? 10 Tips on How to Write an Author Bio

Kind of like kids knowing they need to eat their veggies, authors know the importance of a well-crafted bio, but that still doesn't mean they like writing one.

Several years ago when I taught writing workshops through Barnes & Noble in Charlottesville, VA, the first exercise I had students do was write their author bio. The cringing, seat shifting, pen-tapping task gets them every time, and every single one of them groaned in unison. And yet, by the end of that first class, they proudly took home a well-crafted bio to stick on their refrigerator. To my surprise, each one returned the next week to see what hoops I'd make them jump through next.

That teaching experience taught me that authors really, truly despise writing their own bios. To help the medicine go down a little easier, I came up with my top 10 tips for writing a quality author bio:

1. You will need up to three versions of your bio. (Yes, I thought you'd love to hear that!) Write an extended bio for your website, proposals, interview sheets and media kits; a medium length bio for queries, guest spots on other websites and shorter marketing material; and a brief bio as a byline or for limited character social media websites.

2. Go ahead -- brag! Start with your greatest writing achievement. As an aspiring author, even one published article in the local paper counts and should be highlighted.

3. Leave your demographics for the end and keep it brief. Though the mere fact that you were born is awesome, as a new author, it's more important to establish yourself as a writer first.

4. When listing book publications, should you have any, italicize the title and do not put in quotation marks. Include the publisher and year published in parentheses after the title: i.e. Title of Your Book (Publisher, 20_ _).

5. Refer to yourself in the third person. On the longer bios, I personally like to interject "Heather" a few more times rather than using the pronoun.

6. The credibility an award gives a book can change the life of it! However, note only awards that are relevant to your writing. For example, if you write nonfiction gardening books and you won an award for your outstanding garden, then brag about it. Alternatively, if you won a blue ribbon for your brownies, but you write science fiction, leave out the blue ribbon (but feel free to send me the brownies!). Be sure to update your bio as the awards come in. When two of my books won awards within the same month, I immediately updated my author bios on my website and other places.

7. BS? BA? BIS? MBA? Ph.D.? When it comes to education, much like awards, if your degree is relevant, then note it. If you have a Ph.D. in psychology and are writing a book on teenage bullying, then certainly note it -- it's a credential. Alternatively, if your degree is in architecture and you changed careers to write children's books, unless your book is about how to build the coolest Lincoln Log cabin on your block, you can leave the degree out (especially in the short bio). I have a BIS degree in English and Secondary Education from the University of Virginia. These credentials support me as a writer, writing coach and workshop instructor, so I use it in my long bio.

8. Your bio will change dramatically as your career advances. In that same Barnes & Noble class, I showed student my 2007 bio and my then 2010 bio. It's amazing what a difference three years can make. I started my 2007 bio with the fact that I "reside in the midst of the Blue Ridge Mountains" because I thought it sounded really cool and literary at the time. I learned that where you live isn't so important. It was my publishing credits that advanced my career and changed my bio. Think of it like this -- it's not where you write, it's what you write!
Bonus: If you haven't read Stephen King's On Writing: 10th Anniversary Edition: A Memoir of the Craft, I highly recommend it.

9. If you can, have a professional (or at least a really good) photographer take a quality author photo of you. I used a photographer in Colorado and it took more shots than words on a page to capture the perfect shot. Once you have it, use it shamelessly. Most authors are not recognized by what they look like unless they're John Grisham, who resides here in the midst of the Blue Ridge Mountains, and author of dozens of books including, A Time to Kill: A Novel and Rogue Lawyer. But, an author photo is needed for your book's jacket, your website, social media and press kit (at the very least). Take the time to do it right. (You can read my previous article titled "The Relevance of a Professional Author Photo.")

10. Browse the Internet and look in the books on your bookshelves for ideas. Especially read the bios of authors who write in your genre.

11. Bonus tip: Read your bio aloud when you finish writing it. You'll know immediately if something doesn't sound right.

Tuesday, June 30, 2015

Ghostwriting: Q&A with Ghostwriter Heather Hummel

"So, what exactly does a ghostwriter do?"

That question has been asked of me repeatedly during my over decade long career as a ghostwriter. Some already have guesses or an idea of what the career entails, while others have not a clue. Therefore, when David Wogahn approached me about including a chapter in his eBook titled Successful eBook Publishing: The Complete How-to Guide for Creating and Launching Your Amazon Kindle eBook, I jumped at the chance. The following is an excerpt from his book, a Q&A with yours truly that takes the mystique out of ghostwriting.

For the Time or Writing Challenged

Let's face it, as much as we recognize the value of being called an author and basking in the expert status it conveys not all of us have the time or skills to write a book. In these situations it makes sense to work with a ghostwriter--someone with the skills and qualifications to write on your behalf.

For this topic I sought out the advice of my friend Heather Hummel, a ghostwriter and successful author in her own right. Heather has worked with a number of professionals to help them either write their book or shape what they already have into a book. As an author she also brings a strong sense of marketing and what it takes to produce something commercially viable.

David Wogahn: What is ghostwriting?

Heather Hummel: In my role as a novelist, the characters in my fictional Journals from the Heart series come into my head and tell me how it's going to be! They show up in my mind and take me along each step of their other words, my protagonists own me while I write their novel!

But, my role as a ghostwriter is quite different. I wear a different pen for each client. Despite what might be envisioned, being a ghostwriter does not mean hiding away behind the scenes pounding words out for a client. It's a very interactive approach that requires give and take on both sides. That means I adapt my technique to match the client's needs.

Some clients are able to write and simply need editing and coaching on the direction of their book, others need help writing, but know the direction of their book. Clients hire me for my expertise in writing, formula and format of a manuscript. But, I still need a gist of their story, their message and purpose. It truly becomes such a collaborative effort that by time the first draft is complete, I have to step aside and touch base with Heather Hummel again.

DW: What is the hardest part about ghostwriting?

Heather Hummel: The number one challenge is writing in the client's voice. This means leaving any personal agenda (i.e. ego) aside while stepping into their shoes, learning their voice, their message, and their agenda for delivering it. In fact, one of my first paid writing gigs was for Albemarle Family magazine in 2005. I went on to write over a dozen feature articles for them, and even though I hadn't been married, let alone birthed any kids, I was the top writer for this family focused magazine.

DW: How did you get started?

Heather Hummel: The ghostwriting project that landed me an agent and a book deal, essentially launching my career, was Gracefully: Looking and Being Your Best at Any Age (McGraw-Hill, 2008), co-written with Valerie Ramsey (my mother), who became a model at the age of 63. It's often assumed that it was easy for me to write from my mother's voice. But it's not that simple, especially when penning a self-help book. The key is to constantly think about the reader and what they would get out of the message. In this case it was to seek new challenges at any age while staying healthy in body, mind and spirit. As the ghostwriter, I interviewed nutritionists, healthy aging experts and a Pilates instructor.

DW: How or does a ghostwriter receive writing credit? Heather Hummel: There are varying levels of ghostwriting--from pure ghost where no one knows you wrote it (this is often the case with politicians) to "with" credit to "coauthor." In Gracefully's case, I received public recognition as coauthor "with Heather Hummel" acknowledgment on the book's cover. Each has its advantages and can be negotiated in different ways. Some clients might benefit from their association with an award winning coauthor because the coauthor may have their own following. Other clients may not wish to publicize they did not actually write the book themselves. This is usually to protect their personal or corporate branding. In cases such as these, where a ghostwriter doesn't receive public credit, they can negotiate higher royalties and pay in trade for nondisclosure. It's the old you want the fame or the fortune?

DW: What should someone expect to pay a ghostwriter?

Heather Hummel: The ghostwriter's fee depends on the type of project, the advance [upfront financial payment from the publisher], and whether or not they receive royalties and a portion of the advance. Some ghostwriters, such as myself, charge a flat fee of $100 per page. This includes all of the time spent researching, performing relevant interviews, writing, and editing. For a book, a general fee would range between $20,000 and $75,000 if no royalties or percentage of advance. However, there are so many ways to negotiate different options, that there really is no "average fee." Since royalties and advances vary greatly per book and client, it's always a risk for the ghostwriter to write based solely on these two factors. This is why I've gone to a flat fee or per page fee.

DW: Are there ghostwriter "associations"? How do you find a ghostwriter?

Heather Hummel:

Association of Ghostwriters

International Association of Ghostwriters

And, of course you can visit my own website at

*Originally published in Successful eBook Publishing: The Complete How-to Guide for Creating and Launching Your Amazon Kindle eBook; by David Wogahn

Monday, June 29, 2015

The Relevance of a Professional Author Photo

Due to social media, an author photo connects authors with their audience now more than ever. Since these images are not only long lasting on books, but are also shared on social media outlets, isn't it worth making sure they're great? The answer ought to be an obvious: "yes!" So, why are there so many unprofessional author photos out there, when it is the one visual expression that says: "This is the person who created the work you're about to read,"?

A quality author photo is one of the most important aspects of becoming an author, and yet it often slips through the cracks. Indeed, there are some very professional, well done author photos out there, but for as many great ones, there are a plethora of faulty ones. I am not one to use clichés, but as a photographer, I completely agree that a picture does say a thousand words. I look at it this way: If an author is trying to attract readers to read the tens of thousands of words they've spent months or years writing, they should use their best author photo possible.

This is where my experience as a photographer lets me address the author photo from both sides of the lens.
If you spend months or years writing a book, spend at least a day preparing for your author photo, because it is a critical part of your brand. Here is my take on some common problems and their solutions.

Problem: Too serious of an expression.

Some authors' facial expressions are overly serious -- as though such an expression depicts intelligence and print worthiness. Yet, depending on their genre, a serious expression isn't always appropriate.

Photo Credit: Rankin
For James Patterson, author of Truth or Die, Zoo, and countless other books, it completely works. But, if you are a romance author, it won't work.

Solution: Genre considerations.

Before going into a photo shoot, consider your genre and what overall tone it depicts. If you are indeed a romance author, a pleasant expression of contentment is more acceptable than an intense and serious expression. This is one genre that the head tilted to the side and looking off into the distance, works. If you're a thriller writer, go for the intense, James Patterson-type expression. No matter what, keep your expression as natural as possible. A forced expression of any kind will be picked up by the camera.

Problem: Unflattering pose or posture.

When the camera is on you, pay attention to your body language. An author with their arms crossed will come off as defensive. Not everyone is "a natural" in front of the camera, but simple body language concepts go a long way with author photos.

Solution: Depict an inviting image. 

A simple change in position can make a big difference. For example, a person's arms crossed over their lap, while leaning into the camera, is more inviting than arms crossed over a chest and standing upright.
One common pose that works is when an author candidly places their hand on their chin or temple. This is surely an expression of thinking, which is true -- thinking about what to write next is a huge part of being an author. Be sure the look is authentic and not forced, which borders on cliché.
Women, as mentioned above, have the habit of tilting their head to the side, gazing at the camera or off into the distance. This does work for certain genres.

Problem: Photo processing.
An image that is off in tone, color, exposure and contrast/brightness, will look unprofessional. These are common problems that are usually fixable by someone who is talented with Photoshop. The ones that frighten me the most, however, are photos where the flash lights up the author's face in all the wrong areas (i.e. forehead and nose).

Solution: Hire a professional photographer. 

A professional photographer will help with not only producing a quality image, but they should also be able to assist with body language and posing.

In terms of a color versus black and white image, many old school male authors tend to lean toward black and white. This can be a great choice, and is often more flattering for those who have a few decades behind them. However, if you are a romance author, I believe your photo should be in color. If you're starting to see a trend between the relevance between genre and your author photo, give yourself a pat on the back.

Problem: Cluttered background.

The backgrounds that scream amateur are the ones with merely a white wall behind the author, or worse yet, but still a popular pick, the author standing in front of shrubbery (oops, did I just describe your own author photo?) Don't get me started on the backgrounds with too many distractions, like a plate hanging on the wall next to their head, or curtains that have busy patterns or aren't framed right in the image.

Solution: Find a background that enhances, not distracts from, your portrait. 

For the most professional results, it makes sense to hire a professional photographer. One great example is that they will know how to work with depth of field. Using "shallow depth of field" in your image will blur out your background, making you pop. "Large depth of field" keeps everything in the background in focus. A busy background, especially one that is in focus, competes with the main subject -- you!


Photo Credit: Euan Myles
I love this photo of Kate Atkinson, author of Life After Life: A Novel, among others . The background is relevant and doesn't compete with, but enhances, her image.

Final thoughts: An unprofessional author photo sends the wrong message.

I realize that I have mentioned hiring a professional photographer as the solution for some of these problems. The reason is that I strongly feel that being an author is a business, and much like you would hire a CPA to do your books, you should hire a professional photographer to take care of your looks. There are several reasonably priced photographers out there who can do a great job. Don't ask a friend or family member to do it unless they have experience as a photographer.

Lastly, I recommend spending some time browsing Amazon for authors in your genre. Take notice of what their images depict, and use it to create the visual you want to send to your readers.

Note: My own author photo was captured by the talented Doug Ellis at Ribera Beach, C.A.